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Cutter soil mixings (CSM) is a technique that provides versatile solutions for various types of temporary and permanent walls, retaining structures and shafts as well as structural foundation piles. The CSM technique is a cost-effective construction solution for stabilizing soils in-situ by mixing the soils with suitable grout such as cement, bentonite or a combination of both. This method is beneficial in treating acid sulfate soils in the ground, controlling potential solid liquidification and settlement control of a variety of structures.


Rotary soil mixing is a deep soil mixing process using rotary drilling methods and fluid grout injection. In rotary soil mixing, a small diameter of core drill strings rotations at high speeds in conjunction with a mixing tool that facilitates fluid grout injection. The mixing tool is sized to suit the column diameter to be formed. Fluid grout is injected at the mixing head at either low pressure through standard equipment or high pressure through jetting nozzles.


Controlled modulus columns are a technique that uses a hollow-stemmed auger which is rotated into the soil to the required depth. A cement-based slurry is injected at low pressure through the auger to construct a column as the auger is withdrawn. The combined effect of solid densification and soil reinforcement improves the characteristics of the soil due to this composite action.

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Ground Improvements